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Bradycardia, renal failure, atrioventricular nodal blockade, shock, and hyperkalemia: An important syndrome to recognize


 Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Chui King Wong,
Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2452-2473.309138

BRASH syndrome is a syndrome characterized by bradycardia, renal failure, usage of atrioventricular (AV) nodal blocker, shock, and hyperkalemia (BRASH). It is more common among patients with multiple comorbidities such as cardiac disease, kidney dysfunction, and hypertension requiring AV nodal blockers. Cardiac conduction abnormalities are frequently caused by severe hyperkalemia. However, it may also occur in mild-to-moderate hyperkalemia with concomitant use of AV nodal blockers due to the synergistic effects between these two factors in the presence of renal insufficiency. It is essential for the physician to identify BRASH syndrome as the treatment may differ from standard advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) protocol. We report the two cases of patient who presented with BRASH syndrome who failed to respond to standard ACLS protocol.


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    -  Wong CK
    -  Jaafar MJ
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