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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 88-95

Prognostic significance of poison-related factors and consumption patterns in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning

Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashish Bhalla
4th Floor, F Block, Nehru Hospital, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/tjem.tjem_253_22

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OBJECTIVES: The prognosis of acute aluminum phosphide poisoning is usually based on toxidrome features, with little focus on poison-related factors. We aimed to study the prognostic significance of poison-related factors, consumption patterns, and time delays to treatment. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study in an academic hospital in North India in patients aged ≥ 13 with aluminum phosphide poisoning from July 2019 to December 2020. During data collection, a particular emphasis was made on the poison formulation, the ingested dose, the reconstitution of poison, vomiting, and time intervals to initiate various treatments. The primary outcome was inhospital mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were enrolled (median age, 32 years; 37 males). The mean dose of the ingested poison was 6.56 (±5.42) g. The predominant formulation of poison was pellet (n = 41), followed by powder (n = 16). Twenty patients performed reconstitution of poison before consumption, and 13 stirred the poison while reconstituting. All patients but three developed vomiting after consumption. Inhospital mortality (n = 23, 39%) was significantly high with a higher ingested dose (P < 0.001), nonstirred reconstitution before consumption (P = 0.042), fewer vomiting episodes (P = 0.010), a delay in detection of the victim by someone (P = 0.001), and delayed initiation of intravenous fluids (P = 0.043). The secondary outcomes (shock and requirement of vasopressor or ventilation) remained unaffected by the stirring in the reconstitution group. CONCLUSIONS: Poison-related factors and time intervals determine early risk stratification at admission in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

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