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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 44-51

Poor adherence to the recommended pulmonary embolism diagnostic pathway in the emergency department: A retrospective cohort study

1 Department of Emergency Medicine, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, UAE
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Tawam Hospital; Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE

Correspondence Address:
Alia M Hadid
Department of Emergency Medicine, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2452-2473.366486

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OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary embolus (PE) is a form of venous thromboembolism associated with increased morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated early. Variations in clinical presentation make the diagnosis challenging. The gold standard for diagnosing PE is a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA). Physicians show a low threshold for over-investigating PE. The evaluation of patients with suspected PE should be efficient, including but not limited to the use of risk stratification methods. This study aims to assess the adherence to the recommended diagnostic pathways of ordering CTPAs in patients with suspected PE. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients above 18 years of age who received a CTPA for a suspected PE in the emergency department (ED) of a hospital between 2015 and 2019. Patient demographic data, chief complaint, variables of the Wells and pulmonary emboli rule-out criteria scores, pregnancy status, investigations, and the patient's final PE diagnosis were extracted from the hospital electronic medical records. Diagnostic pathways that took place were compared to the internationally recommended pathway. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-six patients were included in this study. The mean age was 51.01 (±19.5) years, and 377 (69.3%) patients were female. The recommended PE diagnostic pathway to order CTPA was incorrectly followed in 288 patients (59.3%). Seventy-five (15.4%) patients received an unnecessary CTPA. D-dimer test was ordered unnecessarily in 144 patients (29.6%). The overall prevalence of PE in our population was 9.47% (n: 46). Out of the 75 unnecessarily ordered CTPAs, 2 (2.7%) showed PE, while CTPAs ordered using the correct pathway showed 31 (10.9%) PEs. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that approximately two-thirds of all CTPA requests did not adhere to the recommended PE clinical decision pathway. There was a significant improper and unnecessary utilization of CTPA imaging and D-dimer testing. Improvements seem imperative to enhance physicians' clinical approach to PE diagnosis.

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